What is the keto diet?
The keto diet is currently one of the most popular weight loss diets. It is sorted in the word low carbohydrate dietsAlso includes the Atkinson, Dukan or paleo diet. On a keto diet, a person consumes only a minimal amount of carbohydrates and, conversely, increases the intake of fats. Thanks to this special modification of the menu, the body is gradually brought into condition ketosis.
In ketosis, the body draws energy from fat stores, which results in weight loss. In addition to the keto diet, other names are also used for the ketosis-based diet:
- protein diet,
- protein diet,
- keto diet,
- ketogenic diet.
The first experiments with a protein diet appeared in the 19th century. This method of cooking was commonly used medical purposes in diabetic patients. At the beginning of the 20th century, the keto diet became part of the therapy of children suffering from epilepsy. He then described the keto diet in detail Professor George L. Blackburn, which examines fat burning in the human body. Based on the results of the study, he determined exactly how to induce ketosis.
It is the main source of energy for all cells of the human body glucose. Therefore, if a person sharply limits the supply of carbohydrates, the body reaches the most available source of energy. This is called a storage polysaccharide glycogenmainly found in the liver and muscles.
Glycogen stores are understandably limited, so when they are depleted, another source of reserves must come into play. These are fat deposits. Breaking down fats, so to speak ketone bodies (ketones), all cells of the human body can use it as a full-fledged substitute for glucose. Thanks to this, effective fat burning and desired weight loss occur.
In controlled ketosis, it is necessary to limit the daily intake of carbohydrates 20-50 grams per day. At the same time, it is necessary to limit protein (this is how the ketogenic diet differs from the Atkinson diet), otherwise ketosis will stop. This is because the body begins to use protein from food as the main source of energy instead of fat reserves. [1, 2, 3, 4]
Have you ever tried fasting to get healthy or lose weight?
Keto diet: principles
In order for the protein diet to have visible results, a person must honestly follow several basic rules:
- completely avoid carbohydrate foods,
- follow a stable diet and eat regularly (every 3-4 hours),
- drink plenty of sugar-free fluids (ideally 2-3 liters per day),
- get enough exercise (aerobic sports such as swimming, running or cycling are ideal).
If he doesn’t follow them, he risks slowing down (or stopping) his body’s state of ketosis. It may seem obvious at first glance, but in practice it is not so easy to follow all the principles of the keto diet. To give you an idea, a white roll or a slice of bread can break ketosis. [5, 6, 7]
Can the Keto Diet Have Health Risks?
Ketogenic diet is one of the very special way of eating. Together with proteins and fats, carbohydrates represent the main macronutrients, so their radical reduction is very demanding for the human body. Therefore, the keto diet is not suitable for everyone.
And of course, one should never go into it alone. A radical change in the menu should be like this under the supervision of a specialist (a doctor or a nutritionist) who can assess whether the keto diet is really suitable for a particular patient. This is especially true for heart patients, diabetics, or patients with congenital metabolic disorders, who should definitely not start this diet alone.
In some cases, the keto diet is used for medical purposes. It is used for treatment of epilepsy in drug-resistant patients. Research is also ongoing, from which the positive effects of the keto diet can be obtained in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, autism, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, headaches and sleep disorders.
A big problem is also obvious the jojo effect. If you don’t transition from a keto diet to a regular diet gradually, you risk regaining the lost pounds too quickly.
The transition to a keto diet should be done gradually if possible and supervised by a specialist, because in some individuals it can lead to the so-called keto flu. This can then manifest itself as fatigue, muscle weakness, nausea or moodiness. It takes time for the body to get used to the state of ketosis and to cope with it. But unpleasant feelings usually pass within a week. [8, 9, 10, 11, 12]
Keto diet: menu
Wondering what to eat on a keto diet? To enter a controlled state of ketosis, you should not consume more than 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. This amount contains, for example, one cup of cooked rice. However, carbohydrates aren’t just found in regular side dishes, they can also be found in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, normal side dishes are not eaten at all during the keto diet. It is also recommended to limit the daily intake of carbohydrates for really effective weight loss 20 grams.
The ratio of individual macronutrients in a keto diet menu should look like this:
- 5-10% carbohydrates,
- 10-20% protein,
- 70-80% fat.
- all types of meat and meat broths,
- oily fish (mackerel, salmon, tuna),
- high-fat eggs and dairy products (butter, cream, fatty cheeses),
- high-quality cold-pressed oils (avocado, extra virgin olive, coconut),
- nuts and seeds (almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, flax seeds, hemp seeds, pumpkin seeds, chia seeds),
- low-starch vegetables (leafy greens, peppers, broccoli, cauliflower, tomatoes, celery stalks, cucumbers, cabbage, cabbage, asparagus, zucchini, onions, garlic, radishes, leeks, eggplants),
- mushrooms (preferably fried in oil),
- drink only water, unsweetened tea or coffee.
Fruits should be removed completely. Only those allowed berries (blue, raspberry, currant) a avocado.
- industrially processed foods (semi-finished products, ice cream, ketchup, sauces, jams, flavors),
- unhealthy fats (refined fats, hydrogenated fats),
- sweets (cookies, waffles, chocolate, desserts),
- pastry and white flour products,
- cereals, pseudocereals and legumes,
- high-carbohydrate vegetables (potato, pumpkin, sweet potato, carrot, corn, beet),
- sweetened and carbonated drinks, fruit juices and juices.
Keto diet: recipes
A sample menu for a protein diet might look like this, for example:
- breakfast: omelette with bacon, tomatoes with arugula, black coffee without sugar with cream,
- snack: a handful of nuts and seeds, low-fat yogurt,
- lunch: salmon baked with skin, green beans, peppers, tomatoes and leafy vegetable salad,
- snack: cottage cheese whipped with blueberries,
- dinner: baked pork chops with parmesan cheese, avocado salad. [13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19]
Keto diet and alcohol
When on a keto diet, you should ideally avoid alcohol altogether. But if you can’t imagine a meeting with friends or a relaxed Thursday without a glass of wine, you can treat yourself to a glass of low-carb alcohol. This group includes, for example pure forms of alcohol (gin, whiskey, vodka) a dry matured wines (Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Gris). It is completely inappropriate to drink regular beer, sweet wines, cocktails and mixed drinks. [20, 21]
Keto diet for men
Although the keto diet is mostly followed by women, it certainly does not mean that it is not suitable for men as well. Paradoxically, it may work better for them because the male body naturally burns fat faster. That’s why they can be diet results appear faster. [22, 23]
Critics of the keto diet argue that it is an extreme diet that can be used to lose weight, but does not teach a person how to live a healthy lifestyle – there is a risk that he will not keep the weight off and eat too quickly. lost pounds will come back.
In such a case, after regaining the original weight, this is a typical yo-yo effect, the body will have a higher fat percentage than before starting the keto diet. There is such a risk A person on an inappropriate keto diet will lose muscle massthis is undesirable because muscles burn more energy than fat stores, even at rest.
Resources: academia.edu, onlinelibrary.wiley.com, ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, sciencedirect.com, cureus.com., is.slu.cz, edukafarm.cz
What is the keto diet?
The keto diet is a reduction diet based on radical restriction of carbohydrates while simultaneously increasing fat intake. Thanks to this, the body enters a state of ketosis and begins to gain energy by actively burning fat reserves. Thus, a person can lose weight significantly and relatively quickly.
Is it possible to do the keto diet cheaply?
A keto diet should be based on fresh and unprocessed foods. If you eat high-quality fats, meats, and vegetables while on a keto diet, and cook your own meals, it will definitely cost you less than commercial keto diets. Consuming ready-made tablets, powders and instant mixes promise quick results without work, but it will cost you quite a lot.
Does the keto diet allow tomatoes?
Raw tomatoes are considered a suitable element of the ketogenic diet, as they contain only 2-3 grams of carbohydrates per 100 grams.